News & trends

Development direction of electric commercial vehicles

Electric commercial vehicles are a growing trend in the transportation industry, as more and more countries and companies look to reduce their carbon emissions and reliance on fossil fuels. In recent years, we have seen significant advancements in the development and deployment of electric commercial vehicles, and this trend is expected to continue in the coming years. One of the major driving forces behind the growth of electric commercial vehicles is the increasing demand for sustainable transportation solutions. As concerns over climate change and air pollution continue to rise, there is a growing need for alternative forms of transportation that do not rely on fossil fuels. Electric commercial vehicles offer a clean and efficient alternative to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles, making them an attractive option for both government and private sector fleet operators. In addition to the environmental benefits, electric commercial vehicles also offer cost savings over their gasoline-powered counterparts. As the price of electric vehicle technology continues to decline, it is becoming increasingly cost-effective for businesses to switch to electric commercial vehicles. Additionally, many governments around the world are offering incentives and subsidies to encourage the adoption of electric commercial vehicles, further reducing the upfront costs for fleet operators. As the demand for electric commercial vehicles continues to grow, we can expect to see a number of advancements in the technology in the coming years. One area of development that is particularly exciting is the increasing range and speed of electric commercial vehicles. Many of the early electric commercial vehicles were limited in their range, making them suitable only for short-haul routes. However, with advances in battery technology, we are now seeing electric commercial vehicles with ranges of up to 300 miles on a single charge. This extended range makes them suitable for a wider range of routes and applications.

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Business cooperation

Global supply of electric vehicle parts

Global supply of electric vehicle accessories I. Introduction II. The global demand for EVs III. The global supply of EV parts IV. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global supply of EV parts V. Conclusion I. Introduction Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming an increasingly popular choice for transportation due to their environmental benefits and cost savings compared to traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. According to the International Energy Agency, the global stock of EVs reached 7.2 million in 2019, and is expected to continue growing in the coming years. Understanding the global supply chain for EV parts is crucial for the successful production and distribution of EVs. In this article, we will explore the global demand for EVs, the main types of EV parts and their global producers, and the challenges and opportunities in the global supply of EV parts. We will also discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global supply of EV parts. II. The global demand for EVs The global demand for EVs has been increasing in recent years, driven by a combination of factors including concerns about climate change, falling costs of batteries and other EV components, and government incentives and regulations. According to the International Energy Agency, the global stock of EVs reached 7.2 million in 2019, and is expected to reach 140 million by 2030. This growth is driven by strong demand in countries such as China, the United States, and Europe. In China, the world’s largest market for EVs, the government has implemented policies to promote the adoption of EVs, including subsidies and incentives for EV purchases and the construction of charging infrastructure. In the United States, the adoption of EVs has been supported by federal and state incentives, as well as corporate and individual commitments to reduce carbon emissions. In

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Business cooperation

Six points you need to know about electric vehicle batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are relatively sensitive to temperature, and temperature can be said to be the killer of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. Generally, the operating temperature range of lithium batteries is concentrated between -20°C and 200°C. However, the temperature sensitivity of lithium batteries of different material types is also different. Among them, lithium iron phosphate batteries, which are currently the most widely used in China, have better high-temperature performance, but lack tolerance for low temperatures. For some products with better quality, only 80% of the electric energy can be released at -20°C, and if it is lower than -40°C, the battery will often be “frostbited” and irreversible damage to internal material crystallization will occur. Although some manufacturers have developed lithium iron phosphate batteries doped with manganese or olivine crystal structure, which can cope with lower temperatures, but there will be greater discounts in terms of power and cruising range, and the cost is relatively high. Lithium batteries made of ternary materials and lithium cobalt oxide materials are also sensitive to high temperatures in addition to the discharge attenuation at low temperatures (below -40°C). When the operating temperature exceeds 220°C, irreversible damage will occur to the battery structure. Therefore, we sometimes find that in a low-temperature environment, it shows a long cruising range before starting, but immediately finds that the value drops sharply during driving, which is often caused by the low temperature. The actual output power of the battery is reduced. Analysis of six key points for electric vehicle batteries: mileage spontaneous combustion fast charging insurance warranty price However, in a high-temperature environment or during continuous long-term driving, if the mileage of the battery drops sharply or the current is interrupted, it may be that some batteries have heat dissipation problems, and the protection system shuts down some of the

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EV basic knowledge

Control Algorithm of BLDC Brushless DC Motor

BLDC Motor Control AlgorithmThe brushless motor is a self-commutation type (self-direction conversion), so it is more complicated to control.BLDC motor control requires knowledge of the rotor position and mechanism by which the motor commutates and steers. For closed loop speed control, there are two additional requirements, namely the measurement of rotor speed/or motor current and PWM signal to control motor speed power.BLDC motors can use side-arranged or center-arranged PWM signals according to application requirements. Most applications requiring only speed change operation will use 6 independent edge array PWM signals. This provides the highest resolution. If the application requires server positioning, dynamic braking, or power reversal, a supplemental center-aligned PWM signal is recommended.To sense rotor position, BLDC motors use Hall-effect sensors to provide absolute positioning sensing. This results in the use of more wires and higher costs. Sensorless BLDC control eliminates the need for Hall sensors and instead uses the motor’s back EMF (electromotive force) to predict rotor position. Sensorless control is critical for low-cost, variable-speed applications like fans and pumps. Refrigerator and air conditioner compressors also require sensorless control when using BLDC motors.Insertion and supplementation of dead zoneMany different control algorithms are used to provide control of BLDC motors. Typically, power transistors are used as linear regulators to control motor voltage. This method is not practical when driving high power motors. High-power motors must use PWM control and require a microcontroller to provide start-up and control functions.The control algorithm must provide the following three functions:PWM voltage used to control motor speed· Mechanism for commutating and commutating the motorThe method of predicting rotor position using back EMF or Hall sensors Pulse Width Modulation is only used to apply variable voltages to the motor windings. The effective voltage is proportional to the PWM duty cycle. When properly commutated, the torque-speed characteristics of

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EV basic knowledge

A series of problems of DCDC in electric vehicle electrical system

DC/DC converter, as a very important part of electric vehicle power system, one of its important functions is to provide the required power for power steering system, air conditioner and other auxiliary equipment. The other type is in the composite power system, which is connected in series with the super capacitor to adjust the power output and stabilize the bus voltage. To supply power to the vehicle electrical, the location of the DCDC in the electrical system of the electric vehicle is shown in the figure below. Its electric energy comes from the power battery pack, and the place is to supply power to the on-board electrical appliances.The position of the DCDC used in conjunction with the supercapacitor in the vehicle power supply is shown in the figure below. It may appear in the positions shown in Figures (b), (c), and (d), and (b) is more widely used. a form of. DC DC classification and working principle1.1 Isolated and non-isolatedWhat is electrical isolation?A paragraph from Baidu: Electrical isolation is the electrical isolation of the power supply and the electrical circuit, that is, the electrical branch circuit is isolated from the entire electrical system, making it an electrically isolated, independent ungrounded safety system to prevent the risk of indirect electrocution in the event of an exposed conductor faulty live. After electrical isolation is achieved, there is no direct electrical connection between the two circuits. That is, the two circuits are insulated from each other. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the two circuits maintain the relationship of energy transmission. The main function of electrical isolation is to reduce mutual interference between two different circuits and reduce noise.The non-isolated two-way DCDC has a relatively simple structure, each component is directly connected, there is no additional energy loss, and

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EV basic knowledge

Three design considerations for EV charging

Typical electric vehicle (EV) charging station designs for commercial and residential use include energy metering, residual current detection (AC and DC), isolation safety compliance, relays and contactors, as well as drive functions, two-way communication, and service and User Interface. While the goal of a charging station is to efficiently transfer power to the vehicle, enabling power transfer is only its original function.According to IHS Markit, by 2030, an estimated 20 million public electric vehicle charging stations will be connected to the grid, and the size of community charging stations is expected to expand significantly to meet demand. Electric vehicle charging station design contains unique challenges. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) must combine communication, functional safety and information security functions while providing an easy upgrade path to accommodate future grid integration. In this article, I will briefly describe three design considerations for using TI’s SitaraTM AM625 for a Level 2 AC electric vehicle charging station in scalable hardware and software.Design Consideration 1: Learn about future communication standards and grid integrationThe electric vehicle of the future is expected to be an energy source, that is, returning stored energy to the grid during peak usage or power outages. Managing this potential energy exchange is an aspect of grid integration that makes communication a key design consideration for EV charging stations. Whether it is a vehicle charging point to the grid or a charging station to the cloud, the front-end and back-end communication design must meet the data, functional safety and information security standards during the charging process, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: V2G TechnologyThe International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15118 standard outlines a two-way communication protocol between an electric vehicle and a charging station that enables the exchange of information such as vehicle identification, charging control and charging status, enabling features

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EV basic knowledge

How much is the electricity bill for 100 kilometers of new energy vehicles? How far can a pure electric vehicle run for 400 kilometers?

At present, most new energy vehicles are driven in urban areas, and their power consumption per 100 kilometers is between 14-18 kWh. Of course, the specific power consumption of new energy vehicles depends on the model and vehicle configuration, as well as driving habits, driving road conditions and The temperature environment is determined by the actual situation. The above data is for your reference only. Take Tesla Model 3 as an example, its daily power consumption per 100 kilometers is around 12-13 kWh, and if it is running at high speed or in cold weather in winter, the power consumption will increase by 1-3 kWh. about. Electricity bill for 100 kilometers of new energy vehicles The power consumption per 100 kilometers of new energy vehicles is about 14-18 kWh, and according to the different charging methods, the electricity consumption per 100 kilometers will also be different. At present, the mainstream charging methods are household charging piles and public charging. There are two types of charging piles. If you use household charging piles for charging, the charging standard is 0.6 yuan/kWh, then the electricity consumption per 100 kilometers is about 8.4-10.8 yuan; and if you use public charging piles, the electricity consumption per 100 kilometers will be More expensive, about 12.6-27 yuan. How far can a 400-kilometer battery run on pure electricity? Generally, the pure electric 400 can only run more than 200 kilometers at high speed, and the car with a better battery life can run about 300 kilometers (specifically, it needs to be judged according to the model). The reason why the cruising range is “avalanche” is mainly because the motor continues to rotate at a high speed during high-speed driving, which further increases the power consumption of the battery and affects the cruising range of the vehicle. Therefore,

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EV basic knowledge

The composition and working principle of automobile motor controller

With the popularization of electric vehicles, the engines of electric vehicles on the market today all use AC motors. The power of the AC motor is provided by the on-board storage battery, which provides DC power to the vehicle through the on-board storage battery, but the normal motor needs AC power to work normally. Therefore, converting direct current into alternating current is the key to the operation of electric vehicles. Three major modules of motor controller Electronic Controller (Electronic Controller): It is a general term including hardware circuit and corresponding control software. Hardware circuits mainly include microprocessors and their minimum systems, monitoring circuits for motor current, voltage, speed, temperature and other states, various hardware protection circuits, and data interaction with external control units such as vehicle controllers and battery management systems. communication circuit. The control software implements corresponding control algorithms according to the characteristics of different types of motors. Driver: It can convert the control signal of the microcontroller to the motor into the driving signal of the power converter, and isolate the power signal and the control signal. Power conversion module (PowerConverter): It plays a role in controlling the motor current. Power devices often used in electric vehicles include high-power transistors, gate turn-off thyristors, power field effect transistors, insulated gate bipolar transistors, and intelligent power modules. Wide variety of motors Based on different research purposes, there are many classifications of motors. At present, AC motors are basically used in electric vehicles. At present, the mainstream motors used in mainstream vehicles are permanent magnet AC motors, which have three characteristics: one is simple structure, safe and reliable in working operation; Light, low power loss and high work efficiency; third, the shape and size of the motor are flexible and diverse. motor controller working When the motor is driving the car,

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EV basic knowledge

Analysis of seven high-side drive schemes in electric tools

In the application of cordless power tools, the voltage of the battery pack is usually 16V, 20V, 24V, 40V, 60V and 80V, and a mechanical switch is used to control the power supply of the driver board, but due to the characteristics of the mechanical switch, there will be switch sparks, life, volume, etc. shortcoming. Figure 1: Mechanical switch application in power tools In electric tools, the introduction of high-side drive scheme not only avoids the inherent shortcomings of traditional mechanical switches, but also has the advantages of strong controllability, adjustable on-time, support for multiple packages in parallel, short-circuit protection, and small size. As shown in Figure 2, the high-side driver IC will generate a voltage that is 12V higher than the battery pack. By controlling the gate voltage of the MOS, the on-off of the main circuit can be controlled. Figure 2: High-side driver chip solution for power tools LM5050 supporting multi-packets in parallel LM5050 is a High Side Oring FET Controller, the working voltage supports 1V – 75V, and the ZD withstand voltage supports 100V. The LM5050 realizes the function of an ideal diode by detecting the voltage on VDS and controlling the voltage on VGS. At the same time, because the charge pump has been integrated in the LM5050, the supply voltage does not need to be higher than the battery pack voltage. In the cordless power tool, the overall battery capacity can be improved through the parallel connection of multiple packs, and the parallel connection of battery packs of different voltage levels can also be realized. As shown in Figure 3, through the source stage of the battery pack output series MOS, through the control of the LM5050, multiple battery packs can be connected in parallel. Figure 3: LM5050 application multi-pack parallel scheme LM5060 supporting high-side

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EV basic knowledge

Did you know? The technology is already a new competitive advantage for EV makers

Tesla’s huge investment in a battery “gigafactory” and Volkswagen’s plans to build six dedicated battery production plants in Europe by 2030 show that batteries have become a strategically important part of the auto industry.Automakers’ efforts to reduce the size, weight, and cost impact of batteries over the entire life cycle of a vehicle and to extend battery-backed range will have a huge impact on their market share and competitiveness. As more old electric vehicles reach end of life, automakers will even compete for value derived from so-called secondary batteries recovered from end-of-life vehicles.News headlines about battery developments often highlight research into new, sometimes very exotic materials that may one day be able to store more charge than today’s lithium technology. Another completely different part of the battery—the battery management system (BMS), which monitors the battery’s state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH)—is often overlooked. But in fact, new wireless battery management system (wBMS) technology, developed by Analog Devices and pioneered by General Motors in its modular Ultium batteries, promises to give automakers new competitive advantages throughout the battery life cycle— —From the first assembly of battery modules to running in electric vehicles, to disposal, and even to the cascade utilization of batteries.Following General Motors’ announcement of the Hummer EV, one of many wBMS-equipped models, Analog Devices has launched a series of production programs that demonstrate how our wireless technology can transform the design, production, repair and disposal of electric vehicle batteries.Cost, space, weight and design issues associated with wired connections in batteriesAnalog Devices’ development of wBMS technology was inspired by the analysis of communication wiring defects in conventional EV battery packs. The analysis draws on the knowledge of Analog Devices: Analog Devices provides the most accurate conventional BMS on the market, and in wireless communications, Analog Devices is

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